Log Management for IBM Bluemix and Cloud Foundry

Enterprises without DevOps teams and culture typically experience long applications deployment cycles. Once developers make a new release the operations team needs to deploy it to one of the existing or new servers, and it often takes a long time (up to several weeks is not uncommon) to get a new application deployed to production. This process may include hardware purchases, configuration, and troubleshooting sessions with the development team. Especially the troubleshooting portion might take a while, with the typical e-mail ping-pong with commands for the administrators, sysadmins sending log files to the developers… Modern digital businesses don’t operate that way any more.  Instead, modern DevOps teams often utilize PaaS to boost productivity, without even thinking of server resources, ansible/chef/puppet scripts and related stuff. They push their application releases with a few commands to “the cloud” – typically a platform as a service (PaaS) like IBM Bluemix! Once deployments get simplified in such a way, the next logical step is to disrupt the e-mail ping-pong for troubleshooting by introducing centralized log management. Logs are the most important source of information for application troubleshooting. Central log management is crucial for providing real-time log access to relevant teammates.  

In this post, we’ll show how to do this by deploying a Node.js app to IBM Bluemix and using Logsene for Log Management.

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2016 Year in Review: Monitoring and Logging Highlights

2017 is almost here and, like last year, we thought we’d share how 2016 went for us.  We remain committed to be your “one-stop shop” for all things Elasticsearch and Solr: from Consulting, Production Support, and Training, to complementing that with our Logsene for all your logs, and SPM for all your monitoring needs.

Docker

It’s safe to say 2016 was the year of Docker and by extension Kubernetes, Mesos, Docker Swarm, among others, too.  They stopped being just early adopters’ toys and have become production-ready technologies used by many. This year we’ve added excellent support for Docker monitoring with SPM and logging with Logsene via the open-source Sematext Docker Agent.

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Exploring Windows Kernel with Fibratus and Logsene

This is a guest post by Nedim Šabić, developer of Fibratus, a tool for exploration and tracing of the Windows kernel. 

Unlike Linux / UNIX environments which provide a plethora of open source and native tools to instrument the user / kernel space internals, the Windows operating systems are pretty limited when it comes to diversity of tools and interfaces to perform the aforementioned tasks. Prior to Windows 7, you could use some of not so legal techniques like SSDT hooking to intercept system calls issued from the user space and do your custom pre-processing, but they are far from efficient or stable. The kernel mode driver could be helpful if it wouldn’t require a digital signature granted by Microsoft. Actually, some tools like Sysmon or Process Monitor can be helpful, but they are closed-source and don’t leave much room for extensibility or integration with external systems such as message queues, databases, endpoints, etc.

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black friday log management checklist

Black Friday log management (with the Elastic Stack) checklist

For this Black Friday, Sematext wishes you:

  • more products sold
  • more traffic and exposure
  • more logs 🙂

Now seriously, applications tend to generate a lot more logs on Black Friday, and they also tend to break down more – making those logs even more precious. If you’re using the Elastic Stack for centralized logging, in this post we’ll share some tips and tricks to prepare you for this extra traffic.

If you’re still grepping through your logs via ssh, doing that on Black Friday might be that more painful, so you have two options:

  • get started with the Elastic Stack now. Here’s a complete ELK howto. It should take you about an hour to get started and you can move on from there. Don’t forget to come back to this post for tips! 🙂
  • use Logsene, which takes care of the E(lasticsearch) and K(ibana) from ELK for you. Most importantly for this season, we take care of scaling Elasticsearch. You can get started in 5 minutes with Logstash or choose another log shipper. Anything that can push data to Elasticsearch via HTTP can work with Logsene, since it exposes the Elasticsearch API. So you can log directly from your app or from a log shipper (here are all the documented options).

Either way, let’s move to the tips themselves.

Tips for Logstash and Friends

The big question here is: can the pipeline easily max out Elasticsearch, or will it become the bottleneck itself? If your logs go directly from your servers to Elasticsearch, there’s little to worry about: as you spin more servers for Black Friday, your pipeline capacity for processing and buffering will grow as well.

You may get into trouble if your logs are funnelled through one (or a few) Logstash instances, though. If you find yourself in that situation you might check the following:

  • Bulk size. The ideal size depends on your Elasticsearch hardware, but usually you want to send a few MB at a time. Gigantic batches will put unnecessary strain on Elasticsearch, while tiny ones will add too much overhead. Calculate how many logs (of your average size) make up a few MB and you should be good.
  • Number of threads sending data. When one thread goes through a bulk reply, Elasticsearch shouldn’t be idling – it should get data from another thread. The optimal number of threads depends on whether these threads are doing something else (in Logstash, for example, pipeline threads also take care of parsing, which can be expensive) and on your destination hardware. As a rule of thumb, about 4 threads with few things to do (e.g. no grok or geoip in Logstash) per Elasticsearch data node should be enough to keep them busy. If threads have more processing to do, you may need more of them.
  • The same applies for processing data: many shippers work on logs in batches (recent versions of Logstash included) and can do this processing on multiple threads.
  • Distribute the load between all data nodes. This will prevent any one data node from becoming a hotspot. In Logstash specify an array of destination hosts. Or, you can start using Elasticsearch “client” nodes (with both node.data and node.master set to false in elasticsearch.yml) and point Logstash to two of those (for failover).
  • The same applies for the shipper sending data to the central Logstash servers – the load needs to be balanced between them. For example, in Filebeat you can specify an array of destination Logstash hosts or you can use Kafka as a central buffer.
  • Make sure there’s enough memory to do the processing (and buffering, if the shipper buffers in memory). For Logstash, the default 1GB of heap may not cope with heavy load – depending on how much processing you do, it may need 2GB or more (monitoring Logstash’s heap usage will tell for sure).
  • If you use grok and have multiple rules, put the rules matching more logs and the cheaper ones earlier in the array. Or use Ingest Nodes to do the grok instead of Logstash.

Tips for Elasticsearch

Let’s just dive into them:

  • Refresh interval. There’s an older blog post on how refresh interval influences indexing performance. The conclusions from it are still valid today: for Black Friday at least, you might want to relax the real-time-ness of your searches to get more indexing throughput.
  • Async transaction log. By default, Elasticsearch will fsync the transaction log after every operation (2.x) or request (5.x). You can relax this safety guarantee by setting index.translog.durability to async. This way it will fsync every 5s (default value for index.translog.sync_interval) and save you some precious IOPS.
  • Size based indices. If you’re using strict time-based indices (like one index every day), Black Friday traffic may cause a drop in indexing throughput like this (mainly because of merges):

black-friday-log-management

Indexing throughput graph from SPM Elasticsearch monitor

In order to continue writing at that top speed, you’ll need to rotate indices before they reach that “wall size”, which is usually at 5-10GB per shard. The point is to rotate when you reach a certain size, and not purely by time, and use an alias to always write to the latest index (in 5.x this is made easier with the Rollover Index API).

  • Ensure load is balanced across data nodes. Otherwise some nodes will become bottlenecks. This requires your number of shards to be proportional to the number of data nodes. Feel free to twist Elasticsearch’s arm into balancing shards by configuring index.routing.allocation.total_shards_per_node: for example, if you have 4 shards and one replica on a 4-data-node cluster, you’ll want a maximum of 2 shards per node.
  • Overshard so you can scale out if you need to, while keeping your cluster balanced. You’d do this by setting a [reasonable] number of shards that has enough divisors. For example, if you have 4 data nodes then 12 shards and 1 replica per shard might work well. You could scale up to 6, 8, 12 or even 24 nodes and your cluster will still be perfectly balanced.
  • Relax the merge policy. This will slow down your full-text searches a bit (though aggregations would perform about the same), use some more heap and open files in order to allow more indexing throughput. 50 segments_per_tier, 20 max_merge_at_once and 500mb max_merged_segment should give you a good boost.
  • Don’t store what you don’t need. Disable _all and search in specific fields (and search in “message” or some other general field by default via index.query.default_field to it). Skip indexing fields not used for full-text search and skip doc values for fields on which you don’t aggregate.
  • Use doc values for aggregations (instead of the in-memory field data) – this is the default for all fields except analyzed strings since 2.0, but you’ll need to be extra careful if you’re still on 1.x. Otherwise you’ll risk running out of heap and crash/slow down your cluster.
  • Use dedicated masters. This is also a stability measure that helps your cluster remain consistent even if load makes your data nodes unresponsive.

You’ll find even more tips and tricks, as well as more details on implementing the above, in our Velocity 2016 presentation. But the ones described above should give you the most bang per buck (or rather, per time, but you know what they say about time) for this Black Friday.

Final Words

Tuning & scaling Elasticsearch isn’t rocket science, but it often requires time, money or both. So if you’re not into taking care of all this plumbing, we suggest delegating this task to us by using Logsene, our log analytics SaaS. With Logsene, you’d get:

  • The same Elasticsearch API when it comes to indexing and querying. We have Kibana, too, in addition to our own UI, plus you can use Grafana Elasticsearch integration.
  • Free trials for any plan, even the Black Friday-sized ones. You can sign up for them without any commitment or credit card details.
  • No lock in – because of the Elasticsearch API, you can always go [back] to your own ELK Stack if you really want to manage your own Elasticsearch clusters. We can even help you with that via Elastic Stack consulting, training and production support.
  • A lot of extra goodies on top of Elasticsearch, like role-based authentication, alerting and integration with SPM for your application monitoring. This way you can have your metrics and logs in one place.

If, on the other hand, you are passionate about this stuff and work with it, you might like to hear that we’re hiring worldwide, on a wide range of positions (at the time of this writing there are openings for backend, frontend (UX, UI, ReactJS, Redux…), sales, work on Docker, consulting and training). 🙂

Elasticsearch for logs and metrics: A deep dive – Velocity 2016, O’REILLY CONFERENCES

We are known worldwide for our Elasticsearch, ELK stack and Solr consulting services, and we are always happy to help others improve their skills in these technologies, not only through Solr & Elastic Stack trainings, but also by sharing our knowledge in meetups and conferences. This week, on 7-9 November 2016, we joined O’REILLY Velocity 2016 conference, discussing the latest tech in Elasticsearch.

elasticsearch velocity 2016 sematext

Our colleagues Radu Gheorghe and Rafał Kuć were present in Amsterdam and gave a talk about: Elasticsearch for logs and metrics: A deep dive. And it was a great experience! They met with web operations and DevOps professionals interested in improving their Elastic Stack skills.

Lots of comments and questions were answered!

Curious to check their presentation? You may find it below.

Tuning Solr & Pipeline for Logs – Video & Slides

Not everyone uses Splunk or ELK stack for logs. A few weeks ago, at the Lucene/Solr Revolution conference in Boston, we gave a talk about using Solr for logging, along with lots of good info about how to tune the logging pipeline. The talk also goes over the best AWS instance types, optimal EBS setup, log shipping (see Top 5 Logstash Alternatives), and so on.

Docker “Swarm Mode”: Full Cluster Monitoring & Logging with 1 Command

Until recently, automating the deployment of Performance Monitoring agents in Docker Swarm clusters was challenging because monitoring agents had to be deployed to each cluster node and the previous Docker releases (<Docker engine v1.12 / Docker Swarm 1.2.4) had no global service scheduler (Github issue #601).  Scheduling services with via docker-compose and scheduling constraints required manual updates when the number of nodes changed in the swarm cluster – definitely not convenient for dynamic scaling of clusters! In Docker Swarm Monitoring and Logging we shared some Linux shell acrobatics as workaround for this issue.

The good news: All this has changed with Docker Engine v1.12 and new Swarm Mode. The latest release of Docker v1.12 provides many new features for orchestration and the new Swarm mode made it much easier to deploy Swarm clusters.  

 

With Docker v1.12 services can be scheduled globally – similar to Kubernetes DaemonSet, RancherOS global services or CoreOS global fleet services

 

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5 Logstash Alternatives

When it comes to centralizing logs to Elasticsearch, the first log shipper that comes to mind is Logstash. People hear about it even if it’s not clear what it does:
– Bob: I’m looking to aggregate logs
– Alice: you mean… like… Logstash?

When you get into it, you realize centralizing logs often implies a bunch of things, and Logstash isn’t the only log shipper that fits the bill:

  • fetching data from a source: a file, a UNIX socket, TCP, UDP…
  • processing it: appending a timestamp, parsing unstructured data, adding Geo information based on IP
  • shipping it to a destination. In this case, Elasticsearch. And because Elasticsearch can be down or struggling, or the network can be down, the shipper would ideally be able to buffer and retry

In this post, we’ll describe Logstash and its alternatives – 5 “alternative” log shippers (Filebeat, Fluentd, rsyslog, syslog-ng and Logagent), so you know which fits which use-case.
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Open Source Docker Monitoring & Logging

Pets ⇒ Cattle ⇒ Orchestration

Docker is growing by leaps and bounds, and along with it its ecosystem.  Being light, the predominant container deployment involves running just a single app or service inside each container.  Most software products and services are made up of at least several such apps/services.  We all want all our apps/services to be highly available and fault tolerant.  Thus, Docker containers in an organization quickly start popping up like mushrooms after the rain.  They multiply faster than rabbits. While in the beginning we play with them like cute little pets, as their number quickly grow we realize we are dealing with aherd of cattle, implying we’ve become cowboys.  Managing a herd with your two hands, a horse, and a lasso willget you only so far.  You won’t be able to ride after each and every calf that wonders in the wrong direction.  To get back to containers from this zoological analogy – operating so many moving pieces at scale is impossible without orchestration – this is why we’ve seen the rise of Docker Swarm, Kubernetes, Mesos, CoreOS, RancherOS and so on.

 

Containers multiply faster than Gremlins


Pets ⇒ Cattle ⇒ Orchestration + Operational Insights

Container orchestration helps you manage your containers, their placement, their resources, and their whole life cycle.  While containers and applications in them are running, in addition to the whole life cycle management we need container monitoring and log management so we can troubleshoot performance or stability issues, debug or tune applications, and so on.  Just like with orchestration, there are a number of open-source container monitoring and logging tools.  It’s great to have choices, but having lots of them means you need to evaluate and compare them to pick the one that best matches your needs.

DevOps Tools Comparison

We’ve open-sourced our Sematext Docker Agent (SDA for short) which works with SPM for monitoring and Logsene for log management (think of it as ELK as a Service), and wanted to provide a high level comparison of SDA and several popular Docker monitoring and logging tools, like CAdvisor, Logspout, and others.  In the following table we group tools by functionality and include monitoring agents, log collectors and shippers, storage backends, and tools that provide the UI and visualizations.  For each functionality we list in the “Common Tools” column one or more popular open-source tools that provide that functionality.  An empty “Common Tools” cell means there are no popular open-source tools that provide it, or at least we are not aware of it — if we messed something up, please leave a comment or tweet @sematext.

Functionality Common Tools Sematext Tools
Collect Logs from Docker API
(including auto-discovery of new containers)
Logspout Sematext Docker Agent
Log routing Logspout
Routing setup for containers via HTTP API to syslog, redis, kafka, logstash
Docker Logging Drivers (e.g. syslog, journald, fluentd, etc.)
Sematext Docker Agent
(routing of logs to different indices based on container labels)
Automatic log tagging
(with Docker Compose or Swarm or Kubernetes metadata)
For Kubernetes: fluentd-elasticsearch, assumes Elasticsearch deployed locally Sematext Docker Agent
Collect Docker Metrics CAdvisor Sematext Docker Agent
Collect Docker Events ? Sematext Docker Agent
Logs format detection
(most tools need a static setup per logfile/application)
? Sematext Docker Agent
(out of the box format detection and parsing; the parser and the logagent-js pattern library is open source)
Logs parsing and shipping Fluentd
Logstash
rsyslog
syslog-ng
Sematext Docker Agent
Logs storage and indexing Elasticsearch
Solr
Logsene
(exposes Elasticsearch API)
Logs anomaly detection and alerting ? Logsene
Log search and analytics Kibana
Grafana
Logsene
(Logsene’s own UI or integrated Kibana, or Grafana connected to Logsene via Elasticsearch data source)
Metrics storage and aggregation Graphite
OpenTSDB
KairosDB
Elasticsearch
Influxdb
Prometheus
SPM
Metrics charts and dashboards Grafana
Kibana
SPM
Metrics anomaly detection and alerting Influxdb
Prometheus
SPM
Correlation of Metrics, Logs and Events ? SPM & Logsene integration

This table shows a few things:

  • Some of the functionality provided by SPM and Logsene is not available in some of the most popular open-source monitoring and logging tools included here
  • Some of the SPM and Logsene functionality is indeed provided by some of the open-source tools, however none of them seems to encompass all the features, forcing one to mix and match and head down the tech debt-ridden Franken-monitoring path
  • Try it yourself in the MindMap below – pick a few functionalities and see how many different tools you might have to use?
    docker_monitoring_oss

 

Avoid building technical-debt & Franken-monitoring by using a limited number of Docker monitoring & logging tools

Again, if we missed something, please leave a comment or tweet @sematext.
If you want to try Sematext Docker Agent sign up for a free trial.

P.S.: Sematext Docker Agent is available in the Rancher Community Catalog and shows up with our new mascot “Octi” only one more pet 🙂 – so if you use RancherOS search for “sematext” in the RancherOS Catalog and within a few clicks you’ll have the Sematext Docker Agent deployed to your RancherOS clusters!

octi-sda

SIGN UP – FREE TRIAL

5 Minute Recipe: Heroku Log Drain Setup

Since we wrote about how to ship Heroku Logs to ELK we’ve received good feedback from Heroku users and, encouraged by that feedback, deployed a log ingestion service for apps running on Heroku. This makes it super easy to get structured Heroku Logs into Logsene, the hosted ELK logging service.  Let’s see how that’s done in under five minutes (check the current time!):

Step 1 – Create your Logsene App

If you don’t have a Logsene account already simply get a free account and create a Logsene App. This will get you a Logsene Application Token.

Step 2 – Configure Log Drain for your Heroku App

Once you create your Logsene app you’ll see a command to set up the Heroku Log Drain including the Logsene Token.

Simply copy that command and run it in one of the two places:

  1. in the Heroku app directory, like this:

heroku drains:add https://logsene-heroku-receiver.sematext.com/LOGSENE_TOKEN

  1. alternatively, specify your app name in the command instead of calling the command from your Heroku app directory:

heroku drains:add https://logsene-heroku-receiver.sematext.com/LOGSENE_TOKEN -a YOUR_HEROKU_APP_NAME

Step 3 – Watch your Logs in Logsene

If you now access your Heroku App, Heroku should log your HTTP request and a few seconds later the logs will be visible in Logsene.  And not in just any format!  You’ll see PERFECTLY STRUCTURED HEROKU LOGS:

heroku-logs-in-logsene

Parsed Heroku Logs in Logsene

 

Check the time!  Under five minutes?  If you like your Heroku app logs in Logsene tweet us your setup time. 🙂