My guess is you haven't reindexed after changing filter configuration, which is required for index-time filters.
Regarding your fieldType, you can drop the lowercase and ASCII folding filters and just keep the ICU folder, it will work for pretty much any character set. It will normalize case, Scandinavian digraphs (AE), probably Dutch digraphs (IJ) as well. But also deal with German oe ü, ringel s and all regular Latin accents including Spanish tilde ~, circumflex etc.
If a there is a language specific normalizer/folder, use that instead of ICU because there can be differences in how accents should be normalized across languages.
And do not forget to reindex and use the same normalizers index- and query-time.